Formulation of lipstick,formulation and preparation of cold cream and vanishing cream is given in the post below. This is complete notes for D.pharmacy or Diploma student from the topic dental and cosmetic preparation from the dispensing pharmacy subject of 2nd year.
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Cosmetic is defined as an article proposed to be poured sprinkled rubbed or introduced into or otherwise applied to human body or any part thereof for cleansing, protecting, enhancing, helping to look attraction or altering the appearance.
Classification of Cosmetics and Dental products
1) According to their use
2) According to their functions
3) According to their physical nature.
1. According to their use
a. Use for the skin: Creams, Powders, Lotions, Deodorants, antiperspirants.
b. Use for nails: Nail polish, nail polish removers, manicure preparations.
c. Use for teeth and Mouth: Dentifrices and mouth washes.
d. Use for Eye: eye liner, Eye shadow, eye brow pencil.
e. Use for Hair: Shampoo, Hair remover, Hair dye.
2. According to their functions
a. Curative and Therapeutic functions: Antiperspirants and hair preparations.
b. Protective functions: e.g. Face Powder
c. Corrective functions: Face Powders
d. Decorative functions: Lipsticks, nail Polish.
3. According to their physical nature
a. Aerosols: Hair dressings, perfumes.
b. Cakes: Rouge, compact powders.
c. Emulsions: Vanishing creams, cold cream
d. Oils: Hair oil
e. Paste: tooth paste.
f. Powders: Face powder, Tooth powder.
The principle method of dental care consists of mechanically cleansing the teeth to remove accumulated food debris, bacteria, dental plaque and freshly developed tartar with the help of dentifrices product & toothbrush.
Qualities of good dentifrices
1) Should be efficient in cleansing teeth adequately.
2) It should leave mouth with fresh & cleanse sensation.
3) It should be economical enough for frequent & regular use.
4) Should be harmless, nontoxic, and pleasant.
5) It should confirm accepted standards in terms of abrasively nature to enamel and dentine.
6) It should be capable of being packed economically.
7) It should be stable on storage during commercial shelf life.
FORMULATION FOR DENTIFRICES
4. Binding agents
5. Flavoring agent
7. Therapeutic agents:
(a) Antimicrobial agents
(b) Deodorising agents
(c) Anti carries agent: (i) alkalise (ii) enzyme inhibitors.
(e) Anti calculus or anti-tartar agents
(f) Re-mineralising agents
It is used to remove debris and residual stains from teeth surface without damaging it, also known as polishing agent.
A strong rough substance should not to be used as it may harm the tooth structure.
E.g. Precipitated CaCo3,
Binders is used to keep the solids and liquids in united form to maintain consistency .e.g. Gum tregacanth, sodium alginate, Methyl Cellulose.
These are surface active agents, used to enhance the action of abrasives i.e. they lowers the surface tension, penetrate and loosen surface deposits and emulsify the debris which can easily removes from tooth surface. E.g. Sodium Lauryl] Sulphate.
4. Flavouring agent
Flavouring agents are used to impart flavour to the preparation. E.g. Peppermint oil, winter green, Cinnamon oil, Eucalyptus oil.
5. Therapeutic agents
(Note-Dental caries – It is a disease of calcified tissues of the teeth. It is caused by acids resulting from action of microorganisms and carbohydrates.
It is characterized by decalcification of the inorganic portion and if followed by a disintegration of the organic substance of tooth.
Calculus: If plaque is allowed to remain in for long period, it may gradually calcify to form calculus i.e. mineralized deposit.
6. Therapeutic agent
(I) Antimicrobial like Benzalkonium chloride, hexachlorophene, and chlorhexidine acetate.
(II) Special deodorizing agents like chlorophyll herbal extracts.
(III) Anti-caries agents
(i) Ammonium salts, urea are alkaline in nature and neutralizes acid formation.
(ii) Enzyme inhibitors which inhibit enzyme that breaks the sugar to form acids sodium N lauryl
Sarcosinate is an excellent inhibitor of hexokinase.
(IV) Fluorides ions helps to prevent caries formation forming a less soluble flouroapetite in the enamel and thus strengthening the enamel.
Classification of facial cosmetics
These are the preparations which used for cleansing, refreshing nourishing the face, which are available in the form of solid, liquid and semisolid to prevent premature ageing of skin and improve the overall looks and personality.
1. Face powder
2. Compact face powder
4. Creams-Cold creams
(a) Cleansing cream
(b) Vanishing cream
(c) Foundation cream
(d) Sunscreen Creams
(e) Moisturizing creams
5. Preparation for eye make up
(i) Eye shadow
(ii) Eye brow pencil
1. FACE POWDER
Face powder is a beautifying powder applied to the face to set a base after application.
Uses of Face Powder
Face powder also be reapplied throughout the day to reduce shininess produced by oily skin.
An even appearance is obtained.
It can be applied with a powder puff.
Ideal characteristics of face powder
1.Covering powder: Ability to mask skin defects, minor imperfections, pores and shine.
2. Slip: It is the spreading of powder giving smooth and natural feel.
3. Adhesiveness: ability to remain on skin surface.
4. Absorbency: It is capacity of absorption of skin secretions
5. Bloom: It is ability to give velvety finish to skin.
Formulation of face powder
There is no single ingredients which possess all the qualities of an ideal face powder, a blend of ingredients are used.
Face powder contains talcum, precipitated chalk, magnesium carbonate, zinc oxides, titanium dioxide, starch, colour, perfumes.
It is magnesium silicate has ability of spreading (slip) and used as base for incorporation of other powders.
Hydrated aluminium silicate has good covering Power, adhesion, absorbent property.
3. Precipitated chalk
Which is calcium carbonate has excellent absorption property
It also reduces the inherent shine of talc and helps in retaining the perfume
4. Zinc or magnesium stearate
These are used for their adhesion to skin and water proofing quality.
5. Titanium dioxide
Also mask minor imperfections of the skin, impart little astringent action and help to clear up minor skin disorders.
Only permitted and light fast organic and inorganic pigments.
Important as plays key role in sale potential.
2. Compact Face Powder
iii. EYEBROW PENCIL
Black pigmented preparation for application to eyelashes or eyebrow to beautify the eyes.
It darkens the eyelashes and improves brightness and expressiveness of eyes.
It is applied with brush.
Ideal qualities of mascara
It should not cause irritation to the eyes.
It should be non-toxic
It should be applied, easily, evenly and smoothly.
It should not cause eyelashes to stick togather.
It is available in 3 forms
Cake mascara: prepared by melting together waxy material, adding the colours. E.g. Lamp black.
Cream mascara: prepared by mixing the pigments in vanishing cream base.
Liquid mascara: It is alcoholic solution of resin in which carbon black is suspended.
ii. EYE SHADOW
Applied to eyelids in order to produce an attractive moist looking background to the eyes. It is available in variety of shades like pink, yellow, green and brown.
Available in following forms:
EYE SHADOW CREAM: Prepared by mixing selected colours in the wax bases or with petroleum.
EYE SHADOW STICK: contains high proportion of waxes e.g. carnauba wax.
LIQUID EYE SHADOW: Are liquid suspension or a liquid dispersion of pigments.
iii. Eyebrow pencil
Eyebrow pencil is used to highlight line of eyebrow or to modify their outline after packing.
These are available in brown or black colour. The brown pencil contain black iron oxide. The eyebrow pencil contains a high proportion of waxes to make them hard, so that they can be moulded as a thin stick sharpened to a point.
It is used to increase, expressiveness of eyes available in liquid, cake and pencil form. Brown colour is considered a good colour for daytime wear.
Rouge is the cosmetic preparation used to apply colour to cheek for beautification. It stimulates rosy freshness of young and healthy skin.
It is of four types;
a. Dry rouge (compact rouge)
b. Wax based rouge
c. Cream rouge
d. Liquid rouge
a. Dry rouge (compact rouge)
These are similar to compact powder must be smooth, free from grittiness and should be easy to apply, It should have good adhesion and covering powder.
It differ from an ordinary compact powder in being more tinted.
Talc, kaolin, precipitated chalk, magnesium carbonate, titanium dioxide, zinc sterate, inorganic oxides, certified colorant, perfumes.
Zinc oxides- imparts adhesive property and also gives opacity. Titanium oxide- gives more stable colour shades. Metallic stearate – it increases spread ability, imparts it is a dry binder.
It gives compaction. Gum tragacanth , gum karaka or synthetic binders Iike methyl cellulose, carboxy methyl cellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone.
Dry binders like metallic stearate.
Binders Formulation Formula
b. Wax based rouge
Base used is waxes like candellila wax, carnauba wax, bees wax.
c. Cream rouge
Made with emulsified cream base or anhydrous cream base. Anhydrous cream base consists of mineral oil and waxes.
d. Liquid Rouge
It may be suspension type or emulsion type.
In suspension type, suspending agent like carboxy-methyl cellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, and polyvinyl alcohol is used.
LIPSTICKS Formulation of lipstick-uses-ideal properties.
In formulation of lipstick the lipstick is cosmetic molded in form of sticks.
It essentially consists of dispersion of colour of oils, fats and waxes and is suitably perfumed and flavour.
Uses (formulation of lipsticks)
Decorative purpose: To impart attractive colour and appearance to lips.
Protective purpose: Skin of lips have extremely thin corneal layer, it is devoid of sweat gland and sebaceous glands are very few. In cold weather lips has tendency to dry and crack which results in painful sensation and is liable to get infected, use of lipstick has decreased the incidence of dry, cracked lips and infection.
Characteristic of ideal lipstick (formulation of lipsticks)
It should be non-toxic and non-irritating.
It should be free from gritty particles.
It should be easily applicable and removable.
It should give shiny and smooth appearance.
It should not dry on Storage. formulation of lipsticks should be formulated in clean room to avoid bacterial contamination.
It should be long lasting after application.
The stick should not break during application. During formulation of lipsticks it should be made hard.
It should be stable over range of temperature.
It should not eliminate oil and also it should be hard.
FORMULATION OF LIPSTICK
In formulation of lipsticks, following steps are involved,
2. Colouring material
1. Bases: (formulation of lipsticks)
The bases used are mixtures of oils, fatty material and waxes such as mineral oils, vegetable oil, butyl stearate, cocoa butter, petrolatum, lanolin, lecithin, carnauba wax, beeswax, spermaceti etc.
Oils for emollient action and dispersion of colour, fats for easy application and waxes to give and maintain stick like structure.
2. Colouring materials: (formulation of lipsticks)
Colour used for lipsticks are;
a. Bromacids (indelible Dye) water soluble eosin and halogenated derivatives of fluorescein and tetra bromofluorescein. (Penetrate outer surface of lips).
b. Inorganic pigments- Certain pigments like titanium dioxide are also used to intensify the colour shades of Al, Ca, Ba, (by covering lips by coloured layer).
3. Perfume: (formulation of lipsticks)
Only those perfumes are selected for lipstick which are non-irritant and having an agreeable taste. Floral fruity and light spicy fragrances are generally used for this purpose.
Antioxidants: These are used to prevent rancidity which occurs due to oxidation of some ingredients. The antioxidants used are butylated hydroxy anisole, butylated-hydroxyl-toluene, and propyl gallate.
FORMULA for formulation of lipsticks
Colouring matter and perfumes
Method for formulation of lipsticks: Dissolve tetrabromofluorescein in castor oil. Melt beeswax, Acetyl alcohol and lanolin together. Mix the two solution and add required quantity of perfume and colour. Mix thorough so as to get a uniform mass. Transfer the mass into cavity of moulds. Freeze it in refrigerator for 20 minutes.
Creams usually signifies a solid or semisolid emulsion or non-aqueous products of oils, fats and waxes. If an emulsion is of sufficiently low viscosity to be pourable, then it is called lotion.
Functional Classification of Creams
1. Cold cream
2. Cleansing cream
3. Foundation cream
4. Vanishing cream
5. Moisturizing cream
6. Sunburn suntan cream
1. Cold cream
The name cold cream is given because they have cooling effect on the skin on application. Cooling effect is produced due to slow evaporation of water present in emulsion.
They are generally prepared by emulsification of natural waxes and vegetable oils (Bees wax and olive oil). It has emollient effect of oil and waxes and cooling effect due to evaporation of water. Vegetable oil have the tendency to rancidity therefore they are replaced by mineral oil which gives main stable product and not liable to become rancid as no fatty acid, Borax reacts with free acids in natural waxes, it forms sodium soap thus forming emulsifier in situ.
Beeswax has disadvantage that odour is not pleasant. Borax quantity used is 5-6% of bees wax used.
Modern cold cream consists of emulsion in which proportion of fatty and oily material predominates. Thickener like spermaceti, cellulose derivative are added.
Formula for cold cream
Formula for Cold Cream
|2||Liquid paraffin||50 gm|
|5||Perfume and preservatives||quantity sufficiant|
2. Cleansing cream
Function of cleansing cream and lotion are removal of facial makeup, surface grime, oil, dead cells and crust.
Although water is good and cheap cleansing agent but it is ineffective against oil. To remove oily grime, emulsification or solvent process is required. Soap can emulsify oil and therefore soaps and water can effectively removes oils.
But disadvantage of this combination is that it removes too much oil from skin surface, leaving it rough and dry.
This disadvantage can be overcome by properly formulated cleansing cream or lotion.
Cleansing creams or lotions are spread on to the skin, using the fingertips and massage onto the the skin. This action serves to loosen and suspend grime and soil in emulsion. A subsequent wipe with a tissue or cotton wool pad removes the majority of applied cleansing emulsion along with the skin soil. Grime or makeup. Therefore the emulsion should have a medium to high percentage of oil phase.
Cleansing cream developed earlier were Beeswax-borax type. But was less stable and are difficult to remove with water alone. Therefore washable cleansing cream can be prepared with detergent as part of emulsifying agent like sodium Acetyl sulphate, emollient ingredients like lanolin. Acetyl alcohol are added to formulation which leaves thin oil film.
Cleansing cream for oily skin are based on synthetic detergent. If product is meant for oily skin with acne, substances like salicylic acid, resorcinol and sulphur may be added.
Alternatively for oily skin solvents like ethyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol in concentration upto 60% can be used.
3. Vanishing cream
Creams which spread easily and seems to disappear rapidly when rubbed on the skin are termed as vanishing cream.
Traditional formula of vanishing are based on stearic acid. Stearic acid melts above body temperature and crystallize in a form so as to form invisible non greasy film, Stearic acid also imparts attractive appearance to the cream.
These creams can be quickly washed off with due to presence of o/w emulsifier.
Vanishing cream are prepare by emulsification of stearic acid and water by means of alkalise such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, Borax, tri-ethanol-amine to form stearate soap of respective alkali. Part of stearic acid is saponified to give emulgent and part will act as base for cream which give a thin white film of free stearic acid.
Formula for vanishing cream
Formula for Vanishing Cream
|5||Perfume and preservatives||quantity sufficiant|
Humectants like glycerine 5-10% added, since these creams are o/w type. Water being external, it has tendency to dry up. Humectants absorbs moisture from air and thereby prevent drying of skin e.g. glycerine, propylene glycol, sorbitol. Glycerine also prevents harsh reactions from alkalise or free stearic acid.
4. Foundation cream
Foundation creams are day time used to protect and condition of cleansed skin. They must therefore leave the skin surface non greasy and preferably provide base for other makeup that can be applied over it, Modern foundation creams are excellent appearance and stability. They contain not only emollients and moisturizers but also sunscreen agents.
Which help to protect the consumers skin from harmful aging effect of short wave solar radiation. It also hides skin imperfections and imparts smooth even appearance to the skin.
It is available in variety of type like (a) anhydrous creams (b) o/w cream (c) o/w lotion (d) cake makeup (e) stick form makeup.
The formulation of foundation cream consists of fatty base emulsifying agent, preservative, and perfume along with pigment.
The fatty base like Beeswax; carnauba wax, lanolin, mineral oil are used to provide emollient effect Ionic and non-ionic surface alkalise are included in the preparation for emulsification Benzoic acid, salicylic acid as preservatives.
The pigments present in foundation creams are in form of dry fine powder. These may include talc, titanium dioxide, and inorganic pigment. Which imparts dark and intense colour to the skin. In formulation 10-15 % of Pigments are incorporated.
Other inorganic pigments include yellow iron oxide (0.75%), Red iron oxide (0.4%), Black iron oxide (1%).
These pigments are suspended by using cellulose derivatives or inorganic silicates such as bentonite or hydrated magnesium oxide and then incorporated in cream or lotion base.
5. Moisturising cream
There are certain creams which are applied at night and are removed in morning.
These are gently rubbed on the skin with massage like action. These creams are known as night massage cream.
These creams provide occlusive layer on the skin which slows the rate of Tran’s epidermal water loss thus having moisturizing effect.
These creams are also nutritive in property, the fat soluble as well as water soluble vitamins are capable of being taken up through skin. E.g. pantothenic acid and its related material panthenol, panthethine.
6. Sunscreen, Suntan or Anti-burn Preparations
These are the preparations intended to decrease harmful effect of solar radiations or to assist in tanning of skin without painful effect.
(NOTE: Solar radiations consists of continuous spectrum of wavelengths ranging from IR to visible UV region.
Visible- 400 — 700 nm
UV region —200- 400 nm
Exposure Solar radiation 200 -290 nm are harmful and are filtered off by ozone layer.
290 – 320 nm are harmful radiation which causes sunburn.
320-400 nm useful radiation, assists in tanning of skin.
Exposure to sunlight have both useful and harmful effects on human body dependent on length and frequency of revelation, intensity, of the sunlight and sensitivity of the specific person.
Adverse effects-Short term effect causes temporary damage to epidermis, slight erythema (reddening of to painful burns, shivering fever, nausea, itching, and swelling of the skin.
Chronic exposure causes degenerative changes in the connective tissues of corium and results in thickening of skin, loss of natural elasticity, appearance of wrinkles and skin diseases like dermatitis to skin, cancer, peeling blistering of skin.
Important role in vitamin D production and prevent rickets.
Protective action producesmelanin from melanocyte which results in tanning of skin.
Tanning has natural protective action against sunburn. It also causes thickening of skin.
Sunscreen and suntan preparation
These are preparations intended to decrease harmful effect of solar radiation and assist in tanning of skin without any painful effect.
Classification of Sunscreen
1. Sunburn preventive agents: These absorbs 95% of uv radiation and assist in tanning of skin without any painful effect.
2. Sun tanning agents
Agents which absorb 85% of uv radiation in 290 -320 nm but transmit uv light greater than 320 nm and thereby assist in tanning of skin.
Formula for Suntan Cream
|1||Escalol 106 (glyceryl p-amino benzoate||3%|
|4||Propylene glycol ricinoleate||10%|
|6||Perfume and Colour||quantity sufficiant|
3. Opaque sunblock agents
These reflects and scatter practically all radiations (uv or visible) these form a physical barrier.
E.g. Kaolin, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, talc.
E.g. Of sunscreen agents – PABA and derivatives, antranillic acid derivatives, dihydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives and salicylic acid derivatives, tannic acid, derivative, coumarin derivative, uric acid.
Define parenteral – https://pharmacytheory.com/define-parenteral-definition-types-full-notes/