Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics PPT/PDF

Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics

Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics PPT/PDF

Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics

Introduction:

Antibiotics, is the preferred and effective therapeutic collection, occupy strategically the foremost used drug during the fundamental measure of past century across the planet.

This collection of medicine affords a powerful management and important control of a grownup of fatal human related infective microorganisms which previously caused miserable prolonged human sufferings or finally resulting in death regardless of the vigor, Sex factor, age factor or status of a private.

The word ‘antibiotic’ has been given from the term antibiosis that apparently means ‘against life’ (anti means against and bios is life).

Over the years various versions of ‘definitions’ for an antibiotic are postulated which are enumerated as under.

Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics PDF is available scroll down, Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics involves various drugs as described below;

The most widely accepted definition of an antibiotic accepted by the scientific jargon’s is ‘a chemical substance produced by a microorganism, that has the capacity, in low concentration, to inhibit or kill, selectively, other microorganisms.

This definition lays particular emphasis on the terminology selectivity or selective toxicity that explicitly suggests that the substance either checks the expansion of pathogens or exerts a bactericidal action on the microbes without displaying a likewise action on the host organism i.e.., the men.

The preceding definition distinctly excludes the compounds having the pure synthetic formation/genesis (origin).

Yet, in a very rather wider perspective these synthetic substances are effectively treated at equivalence with the natural compounds together with their comparable derivatives under the nomenclature antimicrobials which can be farther categorized into antifungals and antibacterials supported the peculiar style of microbe undergoing inhibition.

Hence, so as to avoid the sensible aspects, both the terminologies viz., antibiotic and antimicrobial could also be employed interchangeably no matter the actual source of the compound.

Even within the past and noncivilized era, period back to 2500 years, the anti infective distinctive features of fungi and moulds normally observed in numerous food products like: mouldy bread, and soybean curds, and yoghurt, and other similar materials to wounds and boils to curbing their infection.

This sort of past early treatment is understood as a folk medicine kind of antibiotic therapy.

CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS

Antibiotics are generally classified on the premise of their integral/inherent chemical structures as given below:

(i) Aminoglycosides,

(ii) Anthracyclines,

(iii) Cephalosporins,

(iv) β-Lactams,

(v) Lincosamides,

(vi) Macrolides,

(vii) Penicillins,

(viii) Polypeptide antibiotics,

(ix) Tetracyclines,

(x) Miscellaneous antibiotics.

Today we will Learn Only about Classification of beta lactam antibiotics, and Which are beta lactam antibiotics? In detail.

Beta Lactams (β-Lactams)

The Beta lactam antibiotics (or β-lactams) basically consists of the penicillins, moxalactam, imipenem, cephalosporins, nocardicin A, aztreonam, clavulanic acid, and thienamycin.

Interestingly, the β-lactam heterocyclic nucleus consists of a 4-membered cyclic ring with an N atom.

There exist variety of structural variants of β-lactam ring whereby the highly-strained β-lactam nucleus is strategically stabilized by means of the fusion of a range of either 5-membered or 6-membered heterocyclic moieties to administer rise to a good spectrum of newer antibiotics as enumerated below.

Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics
Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics

A few essential compounds belonging to the category called ‘other beta-lactams’, such as: thienamycin, meropenem, norcardicin A, imipenem and aztreonam shall be treated individually as under:

Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics are as follows;

Lists of Beta Lactam Antibiotics

1. Thienamycin

Biological Source:

Thienamycin belongs to the first member of a family of des-thia-carbapenam antibiotics with a thioethylamine sidelong chain structurally positioned fused five membered ring.

It is acquired from cultures of Streptomyces cattleya.

Structure:

Thienamycin

Characteristic Features

1. it’s obtained as a white hygroscopic solid powder.

2. Its particular optical rotation [α]D 27+82.7°] (C is adequate to 1.0 in water).

3. it’s UV max (water pH 4.8): 296.5 nm (ε 7900); (pH 2): 309 nm; and (pH 12): 300.5 nm.

4. it’s found to be freely soluble in water; and sparingly soluble in methanol.

5. In diluted solution its stability is decided to be best between pH 6.7, decrease with unusual rapidness above that range.

6. it’s found to be vulnerable to inactivation by dilute solutions of hydroxyl amine and cysteine.

2. Aztreonam

Synonyms

Azthreonam; Azactam; Azonam; Aztreon; Nebactam; Primbactam; SQ-26776.

Biological Sources

Aztreonam utilize the reputation of being the first totally synthetic/artificial monocyclic β-lactam (monobactam) antibiotic.

Structure

Aztreonam

Characteristic Features

1. it’s obtained as white crystalline odourless powder which decomposes at 227°C.

2. Solubility Profile: it’s found to be very slightly soluble in ethanol; slightly soluble in methanol; soluble in DMF, DMSO; and almost insoluble in toluene, chloroform, ester.

Uses It offers a significantly high degree of resistance to b-lactamases and displays specific activity Vs aerobic Gram-negative rods.

3. Imipenem

Synonyms

Imipemide; N-fomimidoylthienamycin monohydrate; MK-787.

Biological Source

It is a highly wide spectrum semi-synthetic antibiotic obtained/produced by S.cuttleya.

It is being acknowledged because the 1st stable derivative of thienamycin.

Structure

Imipenem

Preparation

Imipenem is acquired or obtained as a crystallized derivative of thienamycin by the strategy recommended by Leanza et al.

Characteristic Features

1. it’s obtained as crystals from a combination of water and ethanol.

2. it’s particular optical rotation [α]D 25 + 86.8° (C is 0.05 in 0.1 M (molar) phosphate pH 7).

3. it’s dissociation constants pKa1 ~ 3.2, pKa2 ~ 9.9.

4. It display UV max (water)-299 nm nanometer, (ε 9670, 98% NH2OH.)

5. it’s a solubility profile (mg. ml-1): water 10, methanol 5, ethanol 0.2, acetone < 0.1, dimethyl formamide < 0.1, and dimethyl sulphoxide 0.3.

Note: it’s accessible in aggregation with cilastatin sodium as Imipem, Tracix, Primaxin, Tan Acid, Tienam, Zienam.

What are Beta Lactams Used For?

Uses of Beta Lactams

1. It shows a wider antibacterial spectrum than the other β lactams.

2. It happens to surpass cephalosporins against staphylococci, equals penicillin against streptococci, equals third generation cephalosporins against most aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and is found to be fairly admire ceftazidine against Ps aeruginosa.

3. it’s also equally similar to both metronidazole and clindamycin against the anaerobes.

4. it’s generally recommended for the treatment, management and control of mixed bacterial infections.

4. Meropenem

Synonyms

Merrem, Meronem, ICI-194660, SM-7338.

Biological Source

Meropenem is also other semi-synthetic structural analog of thienamycin, produced by S.cuttleya by the method planned by Sunagawa et al.

Structure

Meropenem

Characteristic Features

1. It is received as white to pale yellowish colour crystalline powder.

2. The colour of its solutions alters from colourless to yellowish colour depending on the concentration.

3. Solubility Profile: It is proved to be sparingly soluble in water, and also soluble in 5% monobasic sodium phosphate [H2NaO4P] solution, it is very slightly soluble in ethanol but it is practically insoluble in acetone or ether.

Uses

1. The resistivity of meropenem to most β-lactamases is fairly good.

2. It has a same distribution as imipenem.

3. It is not degenerated by renal dehydropeptidases.

4. It possesses slightly different attraction for specific PBPs that is primary target includes PBPs (2 and 3) depending on the strain of Gram negative (-ve) microorganisms.

5. Nocardicin A

Biological Sources

Nocardicin A is a monocyclic β-lactam (monobactam) antibiotic which has antimicrobial activity that generally inhibits bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

In short, nocardicins A, B, C, D, E, F, G have been separated or isolated and identified suitably.

All are obtained by Nocardia uniformis its subspecies tsuyamenesis, A being the most essential component. However, nocardicin A is also produced by Actinosynnema mirum.

Structure

NocardicinA

Characteristic Features

1. It is obtained as colourless needles from acidic water having melting point 214-216 °C it decomposes.

2. It has particular optical rotation [α]D 25-135° (for (NaOH) sodium salt).

3. Its UV (max) (1/15 Molar phosphate buffer); 272 nm nanometer (E 1% 1cm 310); (0.1 N. NaOH): 244, 283 nm (E1% 1cm 460, 270).

4. It is recovered to be soluble in alkaline solutions and slightly soluble in methanol but it is practically insoluble in chloroform, ethyl acetate, solvent ether.

Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics PDF

Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics PDF and PPT will be available in short period of time.

To Help Us Donate;

PAYTM or GooglePay to 7887460048

BEST BUYING AFFILIATED LINKS

Samsung Galaxy S20 + (Cosmic Black, 8 GB RAM, 128 GB Storage): https://amzn.to/2BlYh4m

Samsung Galaxy S20 Ultra Cosmic Gray, 12 GB RAM, 128 GB Storage: https://amzn.to/2U5GZi

Apple iPhone 11 Pro Max (64 GB) – Midnight Green: https://amzn.to/2XtisWM

Apple iPhone 11 Pro Max (64 GB) – Midnight Green
https://amzn.to/2U3E5e6

3 thoughts on “Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics PPT/PDF”

  1. Pingback: Google

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *